Assessment of migratory patterns and associated HIV/AIDS and SRH vulnerabilities of the Karimojong adolescents and young people aged 10-24 years
The AIDS Indicator survey (UAC, 2011) indicated that HIV prevalence in Uganda was significantly higher among young women than young men aged 20-24 years (7.1% vs. 2.8%); prevalence among 15-19 year old adolescents is 3% and more than doubles in ages 20-24. The Adolescent Girls Vulnerability Index report indicates that there are disparities in HIV prevalence rates with prevalence being disproportionately higher among adolescent girls than boys. Therefore the epidemic affects girls more than their boy counterparts (UNICEF 2013).
Although HIV prevalence in the Eastern region was lower than the national average (5.3% vs 7.3%), the region’s prevalence had risen from 3.5% in 2005/6 to 5.3% by 2011. On the other hand, the AIDS Indicator Survey showed that HIV prevalence among the Karimojong ethnic community was 3.5% (women) and 3.2% (men). This means that as the Karamoja sub-region, the average prevalence was about 3.4% and that this region is one of the areas in Uganda with increasing threat of new HIV infections and where HIV prevalence doubled.
2.0 Problem statement
Anecdotal information indicate that one of the main risk factors that certainly contributes to the rising new HIV infections in Karamoja is the migration of Karimojong children, especially the young girls to the town and City streets in Soroti, Mbale, Tororo, Bugiri, Jinja and Kampala among others. It is believed that this large-scale phenomenon is probably an organized act of migration and trafficking of these girls which increases their vulnerability. In this process, some of the vulnerable girls are exposed to high risks of sexual abuse while in transit or in these towns. When some of the girls return into the region, they re-settle in the growing towns and trading centers and engage, seek employment bars and hotels. Studies have also indicated that in these areas, there are emerging hot spots of HIV infections.
Whereas some efforts have been put in place to re-settle these children back into Karamoja sub-region and probably into their original manyata, it is not clear if they are targeted to access HIV and AIDS Services and information whether at their places of origin, during transition or even at their destinations. It is therefore critical to establish the following facts on this matter;
- The patterns of migrations of adolescents and young people from Karamoja sub-region into urban centers, including migration points, routes and processes
- The push and pull factors that initiate the migration of the adolescents and young persons
- The risks and vulnerabilities to which the migrating adolescents and young people are exposed throughout the migration cycle.
- The SRH/HIV and AIDS risks associated with the return of migrants to the community
- The appropriate interventions for reducing the exposure to risks and vulnerabilities of HIV infection by adolescents and young people.
The above data and information facts would help inform planning and programming which is geared towards addressing the challenges associated with increasing new HIV infections in the region.
3.0 Justification of the study
With support from Irish Aid, a Consortium of five Civil Society organisations (National Forum of People Living with HIV Networks in Uganda-NAFOPHANU; Straight Talk Foundation-STF, The AIDS Support Organization-TASO and Uganda Network of AIDS Service Organizations-UNASO) are implementing a five year project called “Prevention of HIV and AIDS from the Communities of Karamoja” (PACK). In a similar way, Irish Aid supports a consortium of UN Partners coordinated under JUPSA to implement a five year Karamoja UN- HIV/AIDS Prevention Project (KARUNA-HP). The projects cover all the 7 districts of Karamoja with the goal of contributing to the reduction of new HIV infections amongst adolescents and young people (10-24 years).
While this project targets the adolescents in the region, it does not have a mechanism of targeting the migrating adolescents at the different stages of their migration. This study will provide useful information on the patterns of migrations, risks and vulnerabilities as well as the consequences of the migration of this primary target, for the project to effectively achieve its goals. In view of the above, AMICAALL Uganda, on behalf of the consortium members intends to undertake a study to provide up-to-date information on the subject.
Currently, there is limited comprehensive data and information that describes the patterns, push and pull factors, facilitating environment as well as risks and vulnerabilities of migration of adolescents. Existing studies and programmatic responses have focused mostly on migrants who have left Karamoja and settled in Kampala or at best those involuntarily returned and resettled in Karamoja by government and non-government Organisations. However, in order to sustainably address the consequences, there is need to understand the trends of out-migration over and above the efforts to return people to their places of origin or to newly created settlements in areas deemed better-suited for agriculture.
Through the AMICAALL Uganda network of urban Local Government Authorities, it is possible to influence actions between origin and recipient towns that targets the Karimojong adolescents and young people so as to reduce the risks and vulnerabilities they are exposed to and in turn reduce the risk those returning may pause to their communities in the sub-region. This study will strengthen inter-urban council collaborative efforts through AMICAALL to address a cross-boundary challenges in a more sustainable and cost-effective manner.
4.0 Purpose of the study
The main objective of the study is to provide comprehensive information on migration patterns and SRH/HIV vulnerabilities of adolescents and young people (10-24years) to and from Karamoja sub- region.
5.0 Specific Objectives
- To establish the patterns of migrations of adolescents and young people from Karamoja sub-region into urban centers, including migration points, routes and processes
- To examine the push and pull factors that initiate the migration of the adolescents and young persons
- To assess the risks and vulnerabilities to which the migrating adolescents and young people are exposed throughout the migration cycle.
- To assess the SRH/HIV and AIDS risks associated with the return of migrants to the community
- To suggest appropriate interventions for reducing the exposure to risks and vulnerabilities of HIV infection by adolescents and young people.
6.0 Scope of the assignment
The consultant will carry out consultations with key stakeholders within Karamoja sub-region or outside the sub-region, including Local Government Leaders, Community and Religious Leaders, Law enforcement personnel, Households, as well as relevant CSOs, NGOs and individuals/institutions. The Consultant will also trace and interview the targeted populations of migrating adolescents and young people 10-24 years, transporters, recipient populations and any other relevant communities. The study may cover the geographical sub-region of Karamoja and selected recipient towns within Uganda. It will focus on establishing the patterns, risks and vulnerabilities as well as making recommendations on the appropriate HIV and AIDS interventions to address the associated risks and vulnerabilities.
7.0 Expected deliverables
The Consultant is expected to deliver on the following tasks;
- An Inception Report detailing the Consultant’s understanding of the assignment, the methodology and approach to be adopted, timeframe and the team composition.
- The data collection and analysis tools proposed by Consultant to be jointly reviewed and approved by a Technical Working Group (TWG).
- Preparation of protocol and IRB application
- At least two draft reports including input by TWG and other selected key stakeholders
- Final study and process reports highlighting the processes, findings and recommendations as per the stated objectives.
- Video documentary evidence
- Clean dataset for quantitative and qualitative data
8.0 Time Frame
The entire assignment should be completed within a period not exceeding 40 working days from the date of signing of the contract.
9.0 Relevant qualifications and experience
The consultant/lead consultant should have a minimum of Master’s degree in either Public Health, Social Research, Demography or any other relevant qualification, and should have a minimum of 5 years working experience. The Individual Consultant or Consultancy Firm must have a team of highly experienced and professional persons with the requisite skills set and bias in research. The Consultant should demonstrate experience in conducting similar tasks at regional or national level (e.g. certificates of completion and addresses of clients served) for ease of reference checks. Previous experience conducting research/studies or deep understanding of the socio-economic situation of Karamoja sub-region and working with urban Local Government Structures will be an added advantage. The Consultant should also have high levels of integrity and commitment to the values of AMICAALL Uganda.
The Consultant will report to the Country Director AMICAALL who will provide overall management and supervision. The Country Director may designate a senior officer at the secretariat to provide day to day support and liaison to the Consultant and linkage to other AMICAALL Partners, Local Authorities and other stakeholders in Karamoja sub-region. The deliverables will be reviewed and approved by the TWG.
11.0 Application Procedures
Interested Individuals and/or Consultancy firms may submit their application by email or hand delivery to the address provided below. The application should include;
- A technical proposal describing methodology and approach to the assignment, the team and evidence of experience delivering related tasks.
- A financial proposal detailing the cost of the proposed work
- An updated detailed resume of the Consultancy Team Leader and key members of the team, addresses of referees.
- The envelope should clearly indicate “Application for Consultancy”
12.0 Submission address
COUNTRY DIRECTOR, AMICAALL Uganda Programme
Plot 5 Clovis Road, Block 220, Kiwatule, Kazinga Zone- Nakawa Division
P.O.Box 26323, Kampala,Uganda
Cell: +256-772-525487, Tel: +256-414-236838,
13.0 Submission deadline:
All applications should be received by 7th July 2017 before 5 00pm:
 Sites.E and Akabwai D: Life in Town: Migration from Rural Karamoja to Motoro and Mbale